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Chemical formula

Na2 H2 P2 O7

Other Names

Disodium pyrophosphate, Disodium diphosphate, Disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate, Acid sodium pyrophosphate Disodium

Sodium acid pyrophosphate is an inorganic compound consisting of sodium cations and pyrophosphate anions. It is a food additive whose role is to improve the quality and stability of food products.



In the 18th century and before it, bakeries relied on yeast to mix all cooked goods. However, the use of yeast for the rest of cooked products was boring and bakeries began to explore the use of non-chemical systems. Discovery of sodium bicarbonate in 1846 makes more discovery of more acids that react with sodium bicarbonate and at the end of the 19th century, sodium acid pyrophosphate was used as a mixture that could react with sodium bicarbonate


At first, when the moisture is added to form dough, sodium acid pyrophosphate reacts with sodium bicarbonate to produce carbon dioxide gas.

Also, pyrophosphate during reaction with sodium bicarbonate creates ionic bounds with starch and protein of dough.

SAPP also dissolves readily to provide anion, anionic pyrophosphate, which interferes with proteins in a well-cooked system to create a moist tissue.

Sodium acid pyrophosphate regulates the reaction rate at the desired level with using specific production techniques.

Nutritional value

  21g of sodium and 28g of phosphorus are available in 100g of SAPP. FDA regulations

In the United States, SAPP has been approved as a versatile food ingredient commonly known as Safe Food (GRAS).


Creating a buffing system in the dough provides a pH of 7.3-7.5 that affects the color of the cooked product.

-As SAPP acts slowly and does not react quickly with sodium bicarbonate, it is the most common acid used for baking flour products.

-In addition to flour and bakery products, it is used in the production of biscuits, doughnut, pancakes, cakes, and baking powders

-As SAPP can have a slightly bitter taste, it is important to use sufficient baking soda in the formulation of products such as cakes.

-It is used as a separating agent in processed potatoes (It reduces carcinogenic chemicals called acrylamide in fried potatoes)

-It prevents color change in potatoes and sugar syrups.

-It prevents the formation of steroid crystals in canned fish tones.

- It is an emulsifying agent in cheeses and related products.

- It accelerates the cooking in processed meat and poultry products